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Religious Pluralisme and Culture Papers


Alhamdulillah , Praise God we pray that the presence of Allah Subhanahu wata'ala has bestowed His gifts so I can draw up a paper titled " Religious Pluralism and Culture " in a timely manner .
The purpose of this paper is to further examine and deepen our knowledge of pluralism and religious diversity , the reasons for religious pluralism , and some forms of Islamic religious pluralism in Indonesia, including the influence of the Islamic organizations Islamic religious pluralism in Indonesia.
We would like to thank Suyadi which has provided an opportunity for us to examine this matter . May the blessings and the willingness bountifully rewarded from Allah SWT . Amen . We wish to thank those who have been helped by the completion of this paper .

We realize that this paper is still a lot of shortcomings and still far from perfection . Therefore, criticism and suggestions from dear readers is expected to improve in the future . If in truth there is in this paper and usability , all of it comes from Allah Subhanahu wata'ala . Conversely , if there are flaws and imperfections , all of it because of our shortcomings and limitations . Hopefully this article useful for us

CHAPTER IINTRODUCTIONA. backgroundToday, the issue of pluralism is still warm discussed . Actually, the issue of pluralism has long been present , even to say as old as man and will be there for life is not over, it's just going to continue to evolve with the progress of time .In everyday life , we live a life of diverse scientific and reasonable for what it is . However, in line with the interests of ideological , social , political , etc. . , The reality of pluralism are at the peak of consciousness and into the limelight . With regard to understanding the emergence of pluralism , especially religious pluralism in recent years , the discourse on religious pluralism became an important theme that a lot of attention from a number of Muslim scholars . Even bring up the pros and cons among the thinkers , scholars and religious leaders .Interestingly, in the sense that the issue of concern because it occurred in Indonesia, whichin fact is not the state religion , but who always says religious ; nor a secular state , but is more open to modernization , not also state that does not uphold democracy , but is based on Pancasila , which upholds democracy . Country of birth and is formed from and by the plural society , including the religious plurality . A fact in society that can not be separated with Pluralism .Even more so when the MUI in July 2005 that forbids religious pluralism , then this issue has been sticking to the surface and has graced the pages of print and electronic media . When observed , the difference is likely to be due to misunderstanding the meaning of religious - cultural pluralism , differences in the cues to understand the Qur'anic verse about the plurality nor about the truth claims of a religion .And actually it does make it appear pluralism and rocketed into something very important ?Given this, the author tries to explain the causes of religious pluralism .
B. problem Formulation1 . What is the definition of religious pluralism ?2 . Why happen pluralism religion ?3 . Why is no pluralism in the Islamic religion ?4 . How clerical view of pluralism ?


A. definitionEtymologically , the word origin of pluralism is pluralism (English ) meaning plural (varies ) , plural , or plural . While the terminology , pluralism is a view or understanding that has the principle that it should not hinder diversity to coexist peacefully in the same society . [ 1 ]Departing from the definition of pluralism , the pluralism of religion is " a view that encourages a wide range of religions that exist in the society should support each other to live in peace . [ 2 ]While the definition of the other , religious pluralism is coexisting conditions ( coexistence ) between religions ( in the broad sense ) different in one community while retaining most specific traits or teachings of each religion . [ 3 ]B. The causes of pluralismReligious pluralism of thought emerged during the so-called Enlightenment ( Enlightenment ) Europe , precisely in the 18th century AD , a period often referred to as the starting point of the rise of the movement of modern thought . That is the future colored by throes of new discourses of human thought -oriented sense of superiority ( rationalism ) and deliverance from bondage - bondage sense of religion . [ 4 ]
The causes of the birth of the theory of religious pluralism are many and varied , as well as complex . Reason that diversity is the different cultures produce significant differences in response . [ 5 ] However, in general can be classified into two main factors , namely internal factors ( ideological ) and external factors , which is a factor with other factors affect each other and are closely related . Internal factors are factors that arise from the demand for the absolute truth of the religions themselves , both in the matter of belief , the history and the problem of belief or doctrine of " electability " . This factor is often also called the ideological factor . The factors that arise from the outside can be classified into two terms , namely the socio - political , scientific factors and technological factors . [ 6 ]1 . Ideological factors or InternalIn the context of this ideology , the human race is divided into two parts , the first firm to their faith or divine revelation of heaven , while the second group except those who believe not only the ability to sense only ( rationalist ) . Differences in the perspective of religious faith and will automatically deliver the discrepancies and contradictions in each problem in determining the absolute truth . Therefore , faith is a staple around the issue . [ 7 ] Those who believe in divine revelation are those who believe in the essence of supernatural beings , metaphysical or the highest power above all else or transcendental power that is behind the forces of nature . The second group of people are those who do not believe in it all . [ 8 ] The first group , stuck in a disagreement that can not be compromised at all in determining who / what is the essence of the supernatural substance , both in terms of number , substance and existence . And the result of this difference , they differed in all matters relating to , near or far , with faith and belief . Therefore , we study in this regard , can be simplified in a theological problem that factor .Contradictions surrounding the theological issuesIn the perspective of religion , theology is an element that can not be ditinggalakan , that the metaphor can be likened to the head of the human body . There is no religion without theology . In theology, divinity none of the religions that do not carry this belief and invites his followers to believe first and then followed by other beliefs . Therefore , in this context will be discussed in depth the issues that are very relevant and important , namely the divinity and theology theology electability ( the divine chosennes ) .1 ) Aqidah GodheadAqidah discourse divinity in human thought has been mired in controversy understanding is very diverse and many , commensurate with the variety and number of religions that exist in the world . In this case , the controversy is based on three problems .First , their differences in understanding the substance of supernatural or metaphysical transcendental power that is often known by the name of " God " . [ 9 ] The followers of theistic religions [ 10 ] says that the existence of God , while the followers of non - theistic religions [ 11 ] is divided into two groups , one says that God is pure nothing , they are communists , atheists and most followers streams and modern ideologies . While the other group did not say god exists or not , but enough to be silent or to doubt and hesitation , as followers of Theravada Buddhist group , agnostics and skeptics . In principle , if examined in depth both the community embraces this latter fact does not deny god at all , especially in the context that is the absolute essence of God is god worthy to be worshiped . Indeed they are born only to deny it . [ 12 ] Whatever it is, human nature can not possibly live without a set of rules and belief systems aqidah .Second , there are differences of opinion among the followers of a religion that recognizes the existence of God ( theistic religions ) and the number of the essence of God itself . "Who God is , and whether he was a lot or just one ? " Differences God 's essence and numbers basically arises from their belief that it is revealed from heaven, and written in their holy books . In the context of this problem , people in general can be classified into two main groups , ( i ) those who believe in monotheism or faith in one God, the followers of a religion that is often known as the " religion of monotheism " ( monotheistic religions ) which generally consists of followers of religions called " heavenly religions " such as Christianity , Judaism and Islam . [ 13 ] Although the fact, there is a fundamental difference between each other in defining the essence or nature of God on this one . The Mahayana sect of Buddhism is one part of this first class as well. [ 14 ] ( ii ) the majority of religious adherents of non - Semitic religions such as Hinduism , Zoroastrianism, Taoism and others . They believe in many Gods or groups who are often known as " polytheistic " , ie groups who believe in many Gods are usually manifested in the forces of natural phenomena : the sky ( heavenly ) , heaven ( celestial ) , and earth ( terrestrial ) . Each mensakralkan Lord of Heaven, Earth , Wind , Sun , and others , as or different names according to their language . But the two religions are geographically close to each other usually considerable influence in the similarity of the names of God given . For example, the Sun God in the Hindu religion is a partner , while the Zoroastrian religion called Mithra . So also the Lord of Death in Hindu religion is called Yama , while the Zoroastrian religion called Yima . [ 15 ]Third , differences of opinion among followers of religions who acknowledge the existence of God ( theistic religions ) , which is about whether God incarnate ( transformed ) or not . In this case , they were divided into two groups , Islam holds that God did not incarnate in a human being or anything else ( except the part that syadz Sufis like Ibn ' Arabi and Abu Mansur al - Hallaj ) . While groups other than Islam holds that God is incarnate and incarnate in the human body , but there is a difference of opinion among them on the issue of god incarnation ( incarnation of God ) . [ 16 ] Religion Hindu , Buddhist ( Mahayana group ) and Jainism believe in god incarnate over and re in a different person . While Christianity does not believe in the incarnation repetition , but just believe in the incarnation of a god who only once, namely in ' Isa al -Masih . [ 17 ]2 ) Aqeedah " electability "Confidence as a nation chosen by God is an Aqeedah which is found in almost all religions . In principle this aqidah better known among divine religions over other religions . In Judaism , for example, its holy books clearly explain the selection of a god to them . The Book of Exodus ( Exodos ) , for example , says : " And Moses climbed the mountain to meet with God , the Lord spoke to Moses from the mountain and told him to announce to the Israelites , descendants of Jacob , now if you obey Me and faithful to my own . The whole earth is mine , but you will belong to my beloved , specifically for myself , and you will serve me as priests . "Even the Qur'an also confirms this by the word of God , "O Children of Israel , remember My favor which has Ku- anugrahkan to you and I have preferred you above all people . " [ 18 ] It added , " and indeed We choose to have their knowledge ( We ) the nations ( which existed at the time they were ) " . [ 19 ]Meanwhile , in contrast to the above paragraph , in Christianity there is in fact no New Testament texts stating categorically that " electability " Christians by God . But as far as a matter of faith " electability " is in the books of the new agreement is limited to the Prophet Isa al -Masih , or specific figures . Therefore , aqidah " electability " Christians are more based on the teachings of the church that asserts that God has chosen Isa al -Masih to be the incarnation , [ 20 ] then the cross as a ransom for sinful son of Adam . And election to Isa al -Masih is election against his people .Whereas in Islam , the belief " electability " of Muslims by God is clearly in the texts in the Quran , surah Al - Imron : 110 ,
" You are the best people are born to men , sent to a ma'ruf and prevent on the unjust , and faith in God . " [ 21 ]Aqidah is called also called in the surah Al - Baqarah , which means :" And so ( too ) We have made you ( Muslims ) , people are fair and options that you may be witnesses over ( deeds ) men and that the Apostle ( Muhammad ) be a witness over ( deeds ) you ... " [ 22 ]And there are many more verses and hadiths that explicitly or implicitly asserts the existence of Muslims as a chosen people . But be aware that virtue or electability Muslims not absolute unconditionally , because that would be contrary to God's justice . But bound by what is contained in the verses of the Qur'an , which they always classified as a chosen people as long as they still uphold the principle of amar ma'ruf nahii evil , [ 23 ] and to remain faithful to God .2 . external factorsExternal factors have a significant role for the development of the theory of religious pluralism . External factors include the socio - political and scientific factors , and technological factors a. Socio - Political FactorsAmong the factors that drive the emergence of religious pluralism is a theory of development discourses of socio - political , democracy , and nationalism that has given rise to the nation-state system , and then leads to what is known as " globalization " . This process began since the human mind to know " liberalism " which menerompetkan rhythms of freedom , tolerance , equality and pluralism , and liberalism became an icon and a symbol of every socio - political movement in opposition to all forms of tyranny, to appear in the case of a socio- political term called " democracy " . Likewise , although the fundamentals of liberalism originally grown and developed as a process of socio - political and secular , but then it is no longer understood bounded on mere political issues . Universal and comprehensive character , [ 24 ] who claimed that include human rights , [ 25 ] have also dragged to politicize religious issues and intervene systematically .b . Scientific factors : Movement - Assessment Study " Scientific " to the Modern ReligionsIn essence , there are many scientific factors associated with this discussion . But that has nothing to do directly and closely with the emergence of theories of religious pluralism is the rise of studies of modern "scientific" to the world's religions , or what is commonly known as the study of Comparative Religion . These studies has grown so rapidly and quickly , both in methodology and materials , allowing it to make discoveries , theses , theories , conclusions and scientific enrichment enrichment - new , and in turn make it weighs highly regarded in the discourse [ 26 ] thinking and modern academic . Moreover, studies have managed to equip the libraries with a lot of literature relating to world religions which are very useful for subsequent studies .c . technologyModern technology not only changed the face of the physical - material life , but also change the pattern of human life , both individually and socially . To meet the psychological needs of the material can be obtained by purchase or transfer of technology . But not so to meet the mental - spiritual needs of human beings . Transition from the old paradigm to a new paradigm , both physical - material and mental - spiritual is not easy . The case of the former Eastern European countries , the Soviet Union and Yugoslavia explain how the transition was not easy . Law does not recognize a change in the language already entered the era of high technology or not .In globlisasi era culture , religion can be heavy pressure . Because religions have basic assumption : the human need to handle life fixed (stable , certainty , unfalsifiable ) are life itself is full of changes ( instability , uncurtainty and falsifible ) . In this complicated situation , people are required to adapt to the new environment continuously , while the old values ​​remain the idealized model . Era of cultural and cognitive [ 27 ] jointly affect changes in the way individuals and groups looking "object " outside of himself . In such a situation , the constructive role of religion [ 28 ] to guide man who squeezed the two opposite sides of the highly anticipated demands . [ 29 ]C. Forms of Religious Pluralism in Indonesian IslamAlmost all regions in Indonesia , the religious community real and coincide closely with the realities of everyday life , such as the religious life or religious life and society . The emergence of pluralism , especially religious pluralism of Islam in Indonesia, including due to the birth of the Islamic organizations , the emergence of new ideologies , new schools , or new teachings of each of their backgrounds and goals . Among these Islamic associations and organizations are :1 . MuhammadiyahThe organization was founded in Yogyakarta on 8 Dhu al-Hijjah 1330 H by Kyai Haji Ahmad Dahlan . Muhammadiyah associations trying to restore Islam to its original source , namely the Qur'an and Assunah . That is why the purpose of this association is to expand and enhance the Islamic religious education , as well as reinforce beliefs about the religion of Islam , so the realization of the truth of Islam . [ 30 ]2 . Nahdlatul Ulama " ( NU )NU at the time of its establishment with an older spelling " Nahdlatoel Oelama ( NO ) " was established in Surabaya on January 31, 1926 AD , coincided with the 16th of Rajab 1444 H by sect adherents among scholars often refer to themselves as a group spearheaded Ahlussunnah waljama'ah by KH Hasyim and K.H. Abdul Wahab Hasbullah . NU is the founding movement in reaction to the reform movement among Muslims in Indonesia , and trying to maintain one of the four schools in the issues related to fiqh , Hanafi , Maliki School , the Shafi'i School , and Hanbali . [ 31 ] With thus it can be argued that the primary motive underlying the movement of NU clerics are establish religious motives as sabilillah jihad . [ 32 ] the second aspect that drives them is the responsibility of the development of religious thought which characterized the effort to preserve the teachings of the school Ahlusunnah waljamaah . This is by no means static , does not develop , because the development is done just based on the historical roots of thought developed so that it has a historical context . The third aspect is the impetus to develop the society through education , social and economic . It is characterized by the formation of Nahdlatul Watan , Taswi - rul Afkar , Nahdlatul Tujjar , and Ta'mirul Masajid . The fourth aspect is the political motives that characterized the spirit of nationalism when founding SI NU was established branches in Mecca and obsession about the future independent state for Muslims . [ 33 ]3 . Perasatuan Islam ( Persis )Exactly established in Bandung on 17 September 1923 by KH Zamzam . The idea of ​​founding this organization came from meetings that are held regularly feast at the house of one member of the group who came from Sumatra but have been living in London . After completion banquet is usually followed by a conversation about issues of religion and religious movements both in Indonesia and in other countries . [ 34 ] The exact name is given with the intent to direct ruhul ijtihad and jihad , trying with all his might power to achieve the hopes and aspirations in accordance with the will and aspirations of the organization , ie the union of Islamic thought , Islamic sense of unity , unity sounds Islam , and Islamic unity efforts . This philosophy is based on the word of Allah in the Qur'an : " And hold you all the rope How Firm ( undang-undang/aturan ) Allah and do not be divorced entirely dispersed " . [ 35 ]As well as a hadith of the Prophet SAW , which is narrated by Tirmidhi , " The power of God was with al - Jama'ah " . [ 36 ]4 . The flow of the Indonesian Islamic Propagation Institute ( LDII )Ideology espoused by LDII no different from mainstream Islam Jama'ah / Darul Hadith which has been banned by the Attorney General of the Republic of Indonesia in 1971 . Existence LDII has historical roots in Darul Hadith / Islamic Jama'ah . [ 37 ] , later renamed the Institute of Islamic Employee ( LEMKARI ) in 1972 ( dated January 13, 1972 ) . thenLEMKARI as Islam stands for Employee Organization rename the Employee Organization abbreviated Islamic Da'wah also LEMKARI (1981 ) .Because it is forbidden in Islam Jama'ah throughout Indonesia, Nur Hasan Ubaidah Lubis seek new tactics , by approaching Lieutenant General Ali Murtopo ( Deputy Head of Bakin and staff Opsus ( Special Operations President Suharto ) ) time . While Ali is a known Murtopo very anti to Islam . With protection Murtopo then on January 1, 1972 AD , Islamic Jama'ah renamed ' LEMKARI ' ( Organization of Islamic Employee or Employee Organization Islamic Propagation ) under Golkar . Because it still remains distorted and troubling society , then in November 1990 they held a Consultative Big M LEMKARI in Jakarta Pondok Gede Hajj , and renamed LDII ( Indonesian Islamic Propagation Institute ) at the instigation of the Minister of the Interior , Rudini . [ 38 ]City or region of origin of the emergence of so-called LDII are :a. Banjaran Burengan village , in the middle of the town of Kediri , East Java .b . Gadingmangu village , district. Silver , Kab . Jombang , East Java .c . Pelem village in the middle of town Kertosono , Kab . Nganjuk , East Java . [ 39 ]5 . AhmadiyyaThe Ahmadiyya community is a movement within Islam , founded by Hazrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad in 1889 . Ahmadiyah is not a religion . Religion is ISLAM . Ahmadiyah congregation upholds Kalima Kalimah 'Laa ilaha illallah , Muhammad ur - prophet " . [ 40 ] The name is derived from the nature of the Ahmadiyya Prophet Muhammad , Ahmad ( the praised ) . Ahmadiyah goal is Yuhyiddiyna wayuqiymus - sharia ( Islamic religious Reviving and re enforcing Sharia Qur'aniah ) . [ 41 ]Factors Cultural DifferencesReligiosity in Islam in Indonesia , not in spite of diverse cultures . There are several factors that will affect the diversity of culture , it is due to:a. Factors CustomsFactor is the customs value is not universal meaning not for any community / group receives the value , so the value between a region with other regions vary .Example : Sundanese customs with different societies, Central Java .b . Religion factorReligious factors are the factors that most influence the norms and values ​​, because in every different religious precepts and worship .Example : in Islam alcohol and pork is forbidden , whereas in other religions is not forbidden .c . Environmental factors ( residence )Environmental factors play a role in the differentiation of values ​​and norms of each region / place respectively .Example : in the market environment is very different than in a residential neighborhood , if there are thugs in the market but in the complex no thugs ( who hold / attract a fee ) .d . habit factorThe practice is a factor that is affected by how often the person carrying out the work . [ 42 ]Example : people who were at the school are used to read the Qur'an , but those who are outside , not necessarily accustomed to reading the Qur'an .e . factors TribeTribes in Indonesia there is an assortment of Sundanese , Javanese , Minang , and others. Each tribe has a value and norms different in West Java, for example if it is applying for a marriage of men , but in West Sumatra are applying for the women . [ 43 ]D. Meditations On The Pros and Cons of Pluralism
There are many theological problems in defining the identity of a religious middle - religiously pluralistic environment . Consciously or not many people see and mendefnisikan religion with religious worldview double standard , which is " a set of standards or criteria to apply to their own beliefs and a set of standards that are completely different to the beliefs of others " . Such perspectives are widely used by every religious community not only in discourse , but also in the practice of religion . Theologians or clergy has always insisted that his own belief that comes from God , while others just belief of human conception . Many religious people consider themselves religious identities by using the standard normative ideals of religious texts ( scriptures ) for the religion itself , but at the same time they judge other religions based on historical - empirical reality .In Islam there are two possible emergence sebadb inklusifisme and exclusiveness [ 44 ] .First , how to interpret scripture text , because ( 1 ) The existence of the verses in the Qur'an that seems ambiguous meaning or interpretation of the relationship with the non - Islamic , between peace and combat , ( 2 ) the stigma [ 45 ] the history of religio - ideological conflict between religious communities in the past . ( 3 ) The choice methodogical interpreting scriptural text itself.
Second , the differences in applying the authentic interpretation of scripture texts , that is, it could be penfsirannya same , but different bias lighting . Political , economic , class groups or organizations perbaedaan often affect attitudes towards other religions . [ 46 ]However , historical and social context of the Qur'an text down , a very important consideration , both in the context of the decline because the micro , macro and general historical context of social and cultural extensively at the time. This consideration is very important for the interpretation of texts that are considered contrary can be done in a sensible and integrative , [ 47 ] is not likely to be forced or contrived . It must be remembered that the Qur'an is a response to comments and solutions to the problem of social reality Arabs in particular, and humanity in the world at large .Be a material reflection for all Muslims when will apply absolutism , [ 48 ] in view of other fellow Muslims , because it is based on the verse , they might be better . Moreover , God clearly does not want the monolithic element in the life of society , as a basis for competition with each other for the common good .
1 . Pro pluralismIndonesian Muslim scholars have been involved in a number of discourses on Islam and pluralism . Starting from the view that Islam is a religion of humanity ( nature ) , which means its goals align with the ideals of universal humanity , Nurcholish Madjid argues that Islamic ideals in line with the ideals of the Indonesian people in general . This is one of the principal teachings of Islam . Therefore the political system that should be applied in Indonesia is a system that is not only good for the Muslims , but also to bring goodness to all members of the community . In other words, the system is needed that benefit all parties , including those who are non - Muslims . This , said Nurcholis , in line with the inclusive nature of Islam . Indonesia . According to him , this view has been gain support in early Islamic history . Indonesia Nurcholis realize that their community is very pluralistic in terms of ethnicity , customs , and religion . In terms of religion , other than Islam , the reality shows that almost all religions , especially the great religions can berkembanag fertile and aspirations represented in Indonesia. Therefore the problem of tolerance or interfaith relationships become very important . Nurcholis optimistic that within a matter of tolerance and pluralism , Islam has proven its ability to persuade . The fact that Islam gives aspiration to strengthen tolerance and pluralism , very cohesive with the values ​​of Pancasila that from the beginning reflects the determination of the various groups and religions to meet in a common point ( comon platform ) in the life of the nation . Indonesia has a long history of experience in the struggle of keragamaan , political affiliations and keagaman , since the pre- independence era till afterwards . [ 49 ]Nurcholis see Pancasilalah state ideology which has provided the basic framework for the Indonesian people on the issue of religious pluralism .Meanwhile , Abdurrahman Wahid also see the relationship between Islam and pluralism in the context of cosmopolitanism manifestation of universalism in [ 50 ] the teachings of Islam . According to him , the Islamic teachings which perfectly displays universalism . Are five basic guarantees given to the Muslim community, both individuals and groups . These five basic guarantees are:( 1 ) Physical Safety citizens ,( 2 ) Safety respective religious beliefs ,( 3 ) Safety family and descendants ,( 4 ) Safety of property and personal property , and( 5 ) Safety profession . [ 51 ]In the context of Indonesian society that is pluralistic , Abdurrahman expects to make the ideals of Islam and Muslims as the " giver of a single color " to people's lives as well . He also rejected if Islam djadikan " alternative " to the national consciousness that has been so deeply embedded in the life of the Islamic community should put characterize as a complementary factor , [ 52 ] and not dominate the life of the nation . Thus the Islamic struggle format eventually full participation in efforts to form a strong Indonesian , democratic , and full justice . Akhinya goal is integrative functioning of Islam as a force in national life .2 . cons pluralistElite fundamentalist Islam has distanced attitude and remain cautious to keep their faith from other religions penetration . Therefore, Muslims should not be too in love with them ( the non - Muslim ) faith so as not to be tempted . And should not be tolerant of Muslims in fields related to faith and sharia . In addition , in the field of arts and culture must remain cautious , lest any intermingling or pencampuradukkan , because it would lead to such a split . [ 53 ]Unlike the elite Islamic fundamentalists , Kuntowijoyo argues that Islamic civilization is an open system . It means that Islamic civilization was flourishing in the middle of a pluralist culture and civilization of the world . Nonetheless Islamic civilization and culture is also original and authentic , [ 54 ] which has its own characteristics and personality . Kunto argued that Muslims can accept the positive aspects of any ideology or ideologies , but at the same time , it is necessary that Islam is based on authentic , has a whole personality and its own system . In konsteks Indonesia , Kunto argues that Muslims , especially cendikiawannya , must be able to integrate the national interest and the interests of Islam .
Essentially , the difference is the grace of Allah Almighty granted to man . He who knows the secrets behind his desired difference . No exception ' difference of opinion ' that a discussion of this chapter . [ 55 ]In the Quran , Allah SWT befirman :" And except your Lord willed, He made human beings are one , but they always disagree , except those which are given by the grace of your Lord . And that's why God created them . And sentence ( decision ) your Lord has been established : Behold, I will fill hell with the jinn and mankind Hell ( rebellious ) everything . " [ 56 ]Similarly, the prophet Muhammad , once explained to his companions , where he hinted at the many differences of opinion . He said : " I wasiatkan to you , that you fear God , obey and obey even if a slave a slave ruling . Surely anyone who lived ( at a time when I was not ) , then you will see very much difference of opinion .... " [ 57 ] ( al- Imam an- Nawawi , an Syarhul Arba'în Nawâwiyyah ) .It is very common , when the scholars mention that dissent is a sunnah sunnatullâhatau rabbâniyyah , where the Muslims do not need to avoid it . Even otherwise are required to find out the root of the problem, all the more so in understanding the problems of religion . [ 58 ]

CHAPTER IIICLOSINGA. conclusionPluralism is derived from two words and the ism that is plural , the plural which means diverse , plural , or plural . While ism which means an understanding or views . So religious pluralism is the view or understanding which has the principle that it should not hinder diversity to coexist peacefully in the same society .The emergence of religious pluralism is motivated by several factors , namely internal factors and external factors . On the internal factors that divided mankind into believing the human race against the revelation of heaven / celestial and human beings who do not believe except in sense or rationalist . Whereas in the external factors are divided into the socio - political and scientific factors .The internal factors are factors that arise from the demand for the absolute truth of the religions sendri , such as theology , history , beliefs . External factors have a key role in creating a favorable climate and fertile ground for the development of the theory of growing religious pluralism .In Indonesia , we can conclude that religion is plural , ie, there is a whole religion of Islam , Christianity , Catholicism , Hinduism , Buddhism . Especially in Islam there is also diversity , such as NU , Muhammadiyah , Persis , LDII , Ahmadayiyah .With the proficiency level of diversity , it is possible to live in peace .B. suggestionReligious pluralism is a concept that has broad meaning , related to the acceptance of different religions , and is used in a divergent manner anyway .Al - Qur'an in providing education to the awareness of religious pluralismagainst humanity of which appear on his attitudes as follows :1 . Acknowledge the existence of other religions .2 . Gives the right to coexist respect other faiths .3 . Avoid violence and maintain places of worship of other faiths .4 . Not impose its will to other faiths .5 . Acknowledged on many roads that can be taken by people and governments are competing in virtue .
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